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A general-purpose role based access control model was proposed in 1992 by Ferraiolo and Kuhn, integrating features of existing application-specific approaches into a generalized role based access control model.
This paper presented RBAC as an alternative to traditional Mandatory Access Control (MAC) and Discretionary Access Control (DAC), and gave a formal description, in terms of sets, relations and mappings, to define roles and role hierarchies, subject role activation, subject-object mediation, as well as constraints on user/role membership and role set activation.
Three basic rules were required: A key feature of this model is that all access is through roles.
A role is essentially a collection of permissions, and all users receive permissions only through the roles to which they are assigned, or through roles they inherit through the role hierarchy.
RBAC3 is a fully-featured RBAC model, incorporating RBAC0, RBAC1, and RBAC2.